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    Gerencia de Proyectos

    Conceptos básicos teóricos y prácticos necesarios para la Gerencia de Proyectos.



         La gerencia de proyectos es una disciplina necesaria para que un determinado problema pueda ser atacado de la mejor manera, pero para que eso pueda ocurrir, es necesario tener en cuanta todos los conceptos, tanto teóricos, como prácticos para que al momento de gestionar nuestro proyectos, contemos con todas las herramientas esenciales para que el desarrollo del mismo tenga un feliz termino, es decir, se cumplan todos los objetivos planteados.

    Contenido:

    1. Conceptos básicos de la gerencia de proyectos
    2. Elementos para la formulación de proyectos
    3. elementos para gestión y evaluación de proyectos y su relación con las TIC.
    4. La gestión de proyectos y las innovaciones.

    Proyecto

    Un proyecto es un esfuerzo planificado, temporal y único, realizado para crear productos o servicios únicos que agreguen valor o provoquen un cambio beneficioso. Esto en contraste con la forma más tradicional de trabajar, en base a procesos, en la cual se opera en forma permanente, creando los mismos productos o servicios una y otra vez.

    Gerencia de proyectos


    Gerencia de proyectos es la disciplina de organizar y administrar los recursos, de forma tal que un proyecto dado sea terminado completamente dentro de las restricciones de alcance, tiempo y coste planteados a su inicio.
    Dada la naturaleza única de un proyecto, en contraste con los procesos u operaciones de una organización, administrar un proyecto requiere de una filosofía distinta, así como de habilidades y competencias específicas. De allí la necesidad de la disciplina Gerencia de Proyectos.

    La gerencia de proyectos implica ejecutar una serie de actividades, que consumen recursos como tiempo, dinero, gente, materiales, energía, comunicación (entre otros) para lograr unos objetivos pre-definidos.

    Historia de la gerencia de proyectos


    En la primera mitad del siglo XX, los proyectos eran administrados con métodos y técnicas informales, basados en los gráficos Gantt – una representación gráfica del tiempo basada en barras, útil para controlar el trabajo y registrar el avance de tareas. En los años 50, se desarrollaron en Estados Unidos dos modelos matemáticos: PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique, técnica para evaluar y revisar programas, desarrollado por la Marina) y CPM (Critical Path Method, método de ruta crítica, desarrollado por DuPont y Remington Rand, para manejar proyectos de mantenimiento de plantas). El PERT/CPM es, hasta la fecha, la base metodológica utilizada por los gerentes de proyectos profesionales.

    En 1969, se formó el PMI (Project Management Institute, Instituto de Gerencia de Proyectos), bajo la premisa que cualquier proyecto, sin importar su naturaleza, utiliza las mismas bases metodológicas y herramientas. Es esta organización la que dicta los estándares en esa materia.

    La Gestión de Proyectos es la aplicación de conocimiento, habilidades, herramientas y técnicas a las actividades de un proyecto, con el fin de cumplir sus requerimientos.

    Se puede describir como un proceso de planteamiento, ejecución y control de un proyecto, desde su comienzo hasta su conclusión, con el propósito de alcanzar un objetivo final en un plazo de tiempo determinado, con un coste y nivel de calidad determinados, a través de la movilización de recursos técnicos, financieros y humanos. Incorporando variadas áreas del conocimiento, su objetivo final es el de obtener el mejor resultado posible del trinomio coste-plazo-calidad.

    En resumen, la gestión de proyectos suma áreas tan distintas como la incorporación del proyecto, la gestión de costes, la gestión de calidad, la gestión del tiempo, la gestión de recursos humanos o la gestión de la comunicación (entre los miembros y el exterior). Así, la gestión de proyectos forma un ciclo dinámico que transcurre del planteamiento a la ejecución y control.

    Gerencia de proyectos

     

    Es la aplicación de herramientas, conocimiento y habilidades con el objetivo de lograr el producto o servicio dentro del alcance, tiempo y costo acordado en los inicios del arranque del proyecto. El producto o servicio debe cumplir al mismo tiempo con las necesidades, las expectativas y los requerimientos de los grupos o individuos implicados directamente en el proyecto.

    Existe una organización sin fines de lucro a escala mundial conocida como Project Management Institute (PMO) que sirve como referencia a las buenas prácticas y estándares para los practicantes de esta disciplina.

    De acuerdo a la metodología existen cinco entidades para ejecutar el proyecto. Estos se describen brevemente como:

    • INICIO: Define y autoriza el proyecto.
    • PLANIFICACIÓN: Define y refine los objetivos del proyecto así como planea las actividades a llevarse a cabo para lograr los requerimientos del producto o servicio.
    • EJECUCIÓN: Con la ayuda de los recursos humanos, físicos y financieros se realizan las tareas para llevar a cabo la consecución del proyecto.
    • MONITORIA Y CONTROL: Regula y monitorea las variantes del proyecto.
    • CONCLUSIÓN: Formaliza la entrega del producto o servicio.

      Técnicas y Herramientas de Gestión de Proyectos

      Hay una grand variedad de técnicas utilizadas en el planteamiento y control de proyecto, a saber, los Gráficos de Gantt (incluyendo cronogramas, gráficos de carga, entre otros), el PERT (Programe Evaluation and Review Technique) y el CPM (Critical Path Method). A nivel informático también han sido desarrolladas varias aplicaciones de apoyo al proceso de gestión de proyectos.

      PMBOK

      En el mundo de la Gestión de Proyectos, el PMBOK puede ser considerado como la Biblia de la Gerencia de Proyectos. Sin embargo, si uno no ha profundizado mucho en el área de proyectos  pero busca direccionar su carrera hacia esta área de especialización, conocer qué es el PMBOK es el paso inicial para poder comprender la amplitud de la gestión de proyectos y su importancia para una organización.

      PMBOK  es el estándar para la Administración  de Proyectos y cuyas siglas significan en inglés Project Management Body of Knowledge. Éste a su vez puede ser entendido como una colección de sistemas, procesos y áreas de conocimiento que son universalmente aceptado y reconocidos como los mejores dentro de la gestión de proyectos.

      El comprendido de información proveída en el PMBOK provee a todo profesional que desee especializarse en ésta área de los fundamentos de la administración de proyectos para poder aplicarlo en campos tan disimiles como la electrónica, el desarrollo de software, construcción, proyectos web, proyectos en industrias alimentarias, etc.

      PMI

      Project Management Institute, es la asociación profesional sin fines de lucro mas importante y de mayor crecimiento a nivel mundial que tiene como misión convertir a la gerencia de proyectos como a actividad indispensable para obtener resultados en cualquier actividad de negocios. En la práctica es un grupo de profesionales de proyectos de la gerencia de proyectos que se dedican a promover el desarrollo del conocimiento y competencias básicas para el ejercicio profesional. A la fecha tiene mas de medio millón de asociados acreditados y certificados en mas de 178 países y se ha convertido en la acreditación mas requerida por las empresas para la contratación de profesionales en el área de la gerencia de proyectos.

      El PMI ofrece a sus afiliados una serie de recursos para el avance del conocimiento del profesional de la gerencia de proyectos tales como el desarrollo de estándares, un programa amplio de investigación, programas educativos para entrenamiento y adquisición de nuevos conocimientos, oportunidades para establecer redes de pares profesionales locales para la discusión de asuntos de interés, conferencias y la emisión de certificaciones para el ejercicio profesional reconocidas internacionalmente. Tales credenciales son:

      1. Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM).
      2. Project Management Professional (PMP).
      3. PMI Scheduling Professional (PMI-SP).
      4. PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP).
      5. Program Management Professional (PgMP).

      CICLO DE VIDA VS GESTIÓN.

      1. Ciclo de vida de un proyecto: Cada una de las fases que hay que desarrollar para obtener el producto o servicio asociado.
      2. Gestión del proyecto: Metodología para planificar, ejecutar y controlar las fases de una manera más efectiva (con más probabilidades de éxito)

    4-La Gestión de Proyectos y las innovaciones




    Gestión de proyectos innovadores

         Cuando vamos a gestionar nuestros proyectos que guardan relación con temas innovadores que no son muy comunes o ideas frescas, demos considerar una serie de aspectos que nos van a garantizar el éxito del mismo, por ello espesemos con definir que es innovación.

    Innovación

    Según, (Castillo, 1999), “innovación no implica sólo crear un nuevo producto, puede innovarse al crearse una nueva organización, una nueva forma de producción o una forma diferente de llevar adelante una determinada tarea”. En relación con lo que indica el autor, innovar no solo implica crear cosas nuevas que se relacionen con el ámbito tecnológicos, sino que al crear un Cambio que introduce novedades y se implementan como nuevos productos, servicios o procedimientos, ya estamos en parecencia de una innovación.

    Gestión de la Innovación

    La gestión de la innovación es el proceso de organizar y dirigir los recursos de la organización (humanos, materiales, económicos) con la finalidad de aumentar la creación de nuevos conocimientos, generar ideas que permitan desarrollar nuevos productos, procesos y servicios o mejorar los ya existentes, y transferir ese conocimiento a todas las áreas de actividad de la organización.

    Como punto de partida es fundamental invertir tiempo en definir el modelo de gestión estratégica que la organización seguirá, diseñando un proceso de innovación y su sistema de gestión. Se trata, en síntesis, de definir fases y actividades a emprender, interrelaciones entre ellas, recursos a destinar, objetivos a conseguir, estructura organizativa de apoyo, plan de acción para lograrlo e indicadores de medición y evaluación del proceso son algunos de los pasos a seguir en la gestión de la innovación.

    Entre las actividades más importantes del proceso de gestión de la innovación para una organización, se debe considerar los siguientes aspectos:

    1. Dimensión estratégica

    El primer paso es poner en marcha el plan estratégico de la organización, principal ejercicio de definición y planificación de lo que se pretende conseguir. Se trata de abordar los objetivos y alcance de la estrategia de innovación tras el autodiagnóstico de la situación.

    2. Identificación de ideas para desarrollar

    Son muchas las técnicas y prácticas para identificar y generar nuevas oportunidades de innovación, entre éstas destacan las técnicas de creatividad, diseño y desarrollo de producto basadas en las capacidades creativas de las personas y los sistemas de detección de oportunidades y amenazas del entorno derivados de sistemáticas de vigilancia tecnológica, benchmarking e inteligencia competitiva.

    3.Desarrollo de los proyectos

    Se trata de la puesta en marcha de iniciativas innovadoras. La gestión de proyectos tecnológicos y de innovación presenta características muy particulares, derivadas sobre todo de la falta de definición de algunos aspectos del desarrollo, grado de incertidumbre y riesgo en relación con los objetivos y resultados, etc. Por ello es muy útil en la práctica de la innovación desarrollar sistemáticas para la planificación y control de la ejecución de proyectos de innovación atendiendo a las necesidades específicas de cada iniciativa y primando la coordinación con otros proyectos de la organización. Además, un aspecto decisivo es conocer las posibilidades de financiación ofrecidas por las Administraciones para promover actuaciones innovadoras.

    4. Explotación de los resultados

    Innovar es generar ventajas competitivas que nos diferencien en el mercado y, a través de la gestión de la innovación, un paso clave es conseguir disponer de estas ventajas el máximo tiempo posible. Para ello tenemos los diferentes mecanismos de protección de los resultados de investigación, que nos permiten garantizar la obtención de la mayor cantidad posible de beneficios resultado de la innovación y también la puesta en marcha de estrategias de negocio para explorar y rentabilizar esos resultados.

    La base de este proceso de gestión de la innovación reside en la adopción de sistemas de generación, conservación y gestión del conocimiento en la organización. Identificar cómo y cuándo se genera conocimiento útil para el negocio y las sistemáticas existentes para integrarlo en las prácticas de la organización.

          En fin cuando gestionamos un proyecto innovador, rompedor, utilizando tecnología reciente y poco madura, tenemos que prestar especial atención a los riesgos, sobre todo a los que tengan que ver con falta de conocimiento o “gaps” de conocimiento. Si la tecnología que vamos a utilizar es tan reciente será difícil encontrar conocimiento y expertos en la materia, por lo que probablemente tengamos que preveer tareas de formación e investigación sobre esa tecnología, estas tareas las podemos ver como riesgo (positivo y/o negativo). Si lo vemos como riesgo negativo, tendremos que valorar el esfuerzo a realiar para solventarlo, tiempo en investigación, desarrollo, formación, lo que nos supone un coste.

    Si por el contrario lo vemos como riesgo positivo, estamos ante una oportunidad, formarnos en una tecnología novedosa, ser pioneros, liderar un posible mercado, antes de afrontar un proyecto innovador debemos valorar los riesgos que supone y hacer un balance los mismos, ¿nos compensa asumir ese riesgo? o por el contrario renunciamos al proyecto y a una posibilidad de posicionarnos o liderar un área o sector, a veces la respuesta la tenemos en el plan estratégico de la organización, si el proyecto cae en una línea del plan estratégico y el riesgo es controlable no hay más pregunta que hacerse.

    Los proyectos innovadores suponen un desafío y como Project Managers no debemos temerlos pero si gestionarlos de la mejor forma posible y anticipándonos al futuro con una buena gestión de riesgos.

    Referencias

    https://es.wikibooks.org/wiki/Gesti%C3%B3n_de_proyectos

    http://www.liderazgolean6sigma.com/2013/11/conceptos-basicos-de-la-gerencia-de-proyectos.html

    http://cmap.upb.edu.co/rid=1238421459439_741445816_2852/PMBOOK.PMI.pdf.pdf

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    Corneliancherry Dogwood (Cornus mas) Hardy from zones 4 involving 9, This dogwood fish (Cornus mas) Grows in both multi and single stem materials. Trees grow to 20 feet in height and wide; Low branching can result in a noticeably short trunk. Edible fruits resembling elongated cherries are in the midst of reddish purple fall foliage in the recent cultivar “senior Glory” (m. Mas var. “glowing Glory”), Named for its profusion of yellow spring flowers. Corneliancherry dogwood is pretty disease Wholesale Jerseys – Cheapest NFL Jerseys Sale Online
    and pest resistant, Although it shares the weaknesses to borer and gall common to all dogwoods.

    u. s Holly (Ilex opaca) An evergreen ssbbharuch.com
    strongly found in Christmas, our holly Discount Football Jerseys
    grows in zones 5 through 9. Dioecious hollies are either male or female, And pollination is required to grow berries on www.autoinsurancequotes2016.website
    the female plant. according to Floridata, The distance for men and women winterberry plants (Ilex verticillata) Should be just about 50 feet apart to assure pollination. No similar information is out there American holly, But this estimate may influence your option to plant another large member of the Ilex genus. One male plant is adequate for a variety of female hollies. Hardy in zones 5 your way through 9, American holly can grow to between 40 and 50 ft. tall with a spread of 20 to 40 feet. It is at risk of aphids and scale insects.

    Yaupon Holly (Ilex vomitoria) A northern native, time tested Yaupon holly is hardy in zones 7 through 11. As with other hollies, Both men and women plants are needed to grow the translucent red berries persistent through winter. Native plants reach up to 45 feet in the wild, good Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, But garden plants by and large reach between 15 and 25 feet. Yaupon can be grown as a shrub or trimmed to tree shape. Its tendency to form a thick mass of small branches means that the maintenance of a tree may take frequent effort. Young shoots can be susceptible to aphids and scale insects. While Yaupon can adapt to wet soil scenarios, That can increase being exposed to phytophthora root rot.

    the state of california Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Favored by municipal landscapers for its drought and fire counteraction, florida pepper tree is a mid size evergreen tree (35 regarding 45 feet, by a 35 foot spread), Producing large clusters of red berries nearly year round. A magnets for birds, California pepper tree is messy and ought not to be planted where plant litter is an issue.

    what are the Chances My Child Will Get A Sports Scholarship To College

    In today’s society, We start our kids out young in sports in hope of one day bringing home the big money in the form of a scholarship.

    We line the footballing fields, Travel across the nation for baseball, volley ball, Softball or whatever sport our child has an interest in at the time for competitions.

    Our child spends a great deal of time going from practice to practice, staff to professionals, Select league to pick league. Why do we achieve this? Why do we spend continual money, Resources and getaways? Is it to be able to love of the sports? n’t any, We have hopes of one day our child bringing home that scholarship money to help pay for college.

    I was a reporter in a small town for a few years. I watched time and time again as baseball players from the local team would get drafted right out of high school by the major league. users who didn’t get the signing bonus, usually, Received scholarships to universities nationally.

    What did they do to get those scholarships and signing bonuses? effectively, they were talented players. Talent is able to only get you so far. Most had chemicals, yet certain agents can get you so far. They did play for multiple teams at the same time, Attend lessons from private course instructors, Had a resume of experience dating back to the age of three, But compared to the opposition all that was the same for every player. So how did they end up being the chosen recipient? I believe it was all about being at the best place at the right time.

    in a study completed by the New York Times and published in March of 2008, outlook of parents and athletes differ greatly from the financial and cultural realities of college athletics.

    After reviewing the data and legitimate various college officials, The New York Times found some disturbing statistics for those parents spending thousands in hopes for gaining that scholarship or grant.

    Excluding the glamour sports of football and field hockey, The average NCAA athletic scholarship is nowhere near a full ride to college, Amounting in $8,707. In sports like martial arts or track and field, the number is routinely as low as $2,000. Even when football and the game NFL Jerseys Wholesale of basketball are included, The ordinary is $10,409.

    Tuition and room and board at an NCAA institution often costs between $20,000 and as a consequence $50,000 a particular yeoner.

    Other stats collected in the last NCAA 2003 04 study include:

    Men received 57 percent of all fund money, But in 11 of the 14 sports with men’s and women’s teams, The unique teams averaged higher amounts per athlete. may, The best paying sport was neither football nor men’s or women’s tennis. it actually was men’s ice hockey at $21,755. Next was can easily ice hockey with $20,540. The lowest overall average grant total was in men’s riflery at $3,608 and current for women was in bowling with $4,899. martial NFL Jerseys Wholesale arts was the second lowest men’s sport with $5,806. Another drawback for those parents hoping to cash in on their child’s talents is that many of the recruiters told stories of rejecting top prospects because the mother and father only cared about the money.

    With more or less everything, How does your infant become one of the lucky ones who does bring home the money? In changes article, One kid who did achieve scholarship money tells about how he can pinpoint the exact moment he won the hearts of the recruiters. It was at one game. He scored a few goals and had excellent plays. He said he often wonders what might have happened if he had a bad game that day. That is what it depends on.

    The kids I said about above. The scouts came out decades before I was reporting on this team. The coach knew somebody and wanted this one kid looked over. each and every year, They continually come back because that first year, another kid caught their eye. They came back to watch him the next year and the same thing is new over cheap jerseys and over.

    It comes down to being in the best place at the right time. okay, These select leagues can along with that exposure, But not surprisingly, it is a game of chance.

    Is your son going to perform at the right level at the right time? Is that coach going to such as your attitude as a parent? Does your kid have that winning attitude are they coachable?

    As parents you have to weigh the cost of all the expenses to decide if it is worth the chance of the return payout. one course of action I can give is to stress the academics. Academics can pay more or just as much as a sport scholarship ever did. choose, Be prepared and prepare your kid for the level of work that it will take to even keep that scholarship.

    On verge of default

    Debt saddled Jaiprakash associates, The flagship company of JP Group, Tanked in trade today after Care Ratings decreased its debt rating to a default category.

    Care score cut JP Associates’ debt rating to “d” outside of “BB” in the past, Citing a delay in debt servicing due to weak liquidity.

    Care Ratings in its report said deterioration of you’re able to send financial performance and delay in receipt of funds through monetization of assets have affected the liquidity position of soccer jerseys cheap the company and led to delays in debt servicing.

    JP Associates business financing loans worth Rs 25,280 crore and better NCDs worth Rs 29,303 crore were allocated a default rating. Some of the most significant names in jerseys from China free shipping the banking industry have significant exposures to the group.

    to be able to a report by Morgan Stanley, CARE cutting the business’s rating to D from BB is a big negative cheap jerseys for banks. Morgan Stanley has in fact pegged total debt for JP affiliates at around 0.4 for every cent of the banking system in India, And at 1 per for the JP Group.

    The report says ICICI Bank ‘s contact with JP Associates stands at around Rs 5,780 crore, followed by State Bank of India (SBI) At urs 2,812 crore. IDBI ‘s introduction is pegged at around Rs 2,270 crore and as well as IFCI at Rs 629 crore. The report highlights that it is unlikely that banks will push the company towards restructuring soon.

    Sources in the banking industry shown the news to CNBC TV18, Saying that you can find delays in re payment on debt for JPA, But the account remains standard and has not fallen into the NPA or non running asset category yet.

    Sources CNBC TV18 spoke to also added that there is no proposal for much more lending to JP Associates on the table as of now, And a corrective action plan to bring the company back on track calls for more sales of both core and non core assets of the company.

    not forget, Jaypee Group’s Manoj Gaur has sold almost a fifth of his group’s assets as a way to pare down the massive debt, But the consolidated debt at the group level still stands at over Rs 61,285 crore.

    for that fiscal FY15, JP employees reported a net loss of Rs 1,110 crore on a total employed income of Rs 10,854 crore on a standalone basis as in contrast to profit after tax (jim) Of Rs 414 crore on a total employed income of Rs 13,328 crore over FY14.

    On a combined basis, private information reported a net loss of Rs 1,543 crore on an working with income of Rs 19,650 crore in FY15 compared to net loss of Rs 703 crore on a total operating income of Rs 20,007 crore on the inside FY14.

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